NTEU CHAPTER 280 - U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY,  NATIONAL HEADQUARTERS
BEN FRANKLIN STATION,  BOX 7672, WASHINGTON D.C. 20044 - PHONE 202-566-2789
INTERNET
http://www.nteu280.org  E MAIL
Al-Mudallal.Amer@epa.gov

DESCRIPTION   NEWSLETTER   CURRENT ISSUES   PRESS RELEASES   LINKS   MEMBERS PAGE   HISTORY   SITE INDEX

 


Footnotes in Statement of Concern on Fluoridation
(For a more comprehensive list of scientific literature, see Bibliography section at www.SLweb.org )

1 CDC (1993). Fluoridation Census 1992.

2 National Sanitation Foundation International. (2000) Letter from Stan Hazan, General Manager, NSF Drinking Water Additives Certification Program, to Ken Calvert, Chairman, Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment, Committee on Science, US House of Representatives. July 7. http://www.keepersofthewell.org/product_pdfs/NSF_response.pdf

3a -- Damkaer DM, and Dey DB 1989. Evidence for fluoride effects on salmon passage at John Day Dam, Columbia River, 1982-1986. N. Am. J. Fish. Manage.9:154-162.

-- Davison A. and Weinstein L. The effects of fluorides on plants. (1998) Fluorides and the Environment. Earth Island Institute. www.earthisland.org .

3b Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines, http://www.ec.gc.ca/ceqg-rcqe/English/Html/GAAG_Fluoride.cfm

4 Personal communication with Dave Paris, Manchester Water Works, NH. (January 2001) Calculation based on estimated two-liters/ person/day used for drinking and cooking.

5 EPA. (1999) Letter from Charles Fox, Assistant Administrator, Office of Water, to Ken Calvert, Chairman, Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment, Comm. on Science, US House of Representatives. June 23, 1999 http://www.keepersofthewell.org/gov_resp_pdfs/EPAresponse1.pdf 

6 -- Masters RD, et al. (2000). Association of silicofluoride treated water with elevated blood lead. Neurotoxicology. 21:6, 1091 1099.

-- Masters RD, and Coplan M. (1999). Water treatment with silicofluorides and lead toxicity. International Journal of Environmental Studies. September.



7 Neurotoxicity

-- Varner, J.A. et al (1998). Chronic administration of aluminum-fluoride and sodium-fluoride to rats in drinking water: Alterations in neuronal and cerebrovascular integrity. Brain Research, 784, 284-298.

-- Mullenix, P. et al (1995). Neurotoxicity of sodium fluoride in rats. Neurotoxicology &Teratology, 17, 169-77.

-- Lu, Y. et al (2000). Effect of high-fluoride water on intelligence of children. Fluoride, 33, 74-78.

-- Li, X.S., (1995). Effect of fluoride exposure on intelligence in children. Fluoride, 28:4, 189-192

-- Zhao, L.B. et al (1996). Effect of high-fluoride water supply on children's intelligence. Fluoride, 29, 190-192.



8 Bone Pathology

-- Riggs, B.L. et al (1990). Effect of fluoride treatment on the fracture rates in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. N. Eng. J. Med., 322, 802-809.

-- Li Y, et al.(2001). Effect of long-term exposure to fluoride in drinking water on risks of bone fractures. J Bone Miner Res.16(5):932-9.

-- Kurttio, P., N. Gustavsson, et al. (1999). Exposure to natural fluoride in well water and hip fracture: A cohort analysis in Finland. American Journal of Epidemiology 150(8): 817-824.

-- Jacobsen, S., J. Goldberg, et al. (1992). The association between water fluoridation and hip fracture among white women and men aged 65 years and older; a national ecologic study. Annals of Epidemiology 2: 617-626.

-- Danielson, C., J. L. Lyon, et al. (1992). Hip fractures and fluoridation in Utah's elderly population. Journal of the American Medical Association 268(6): 746-748.

-- Sowers, M., M. Clark, et al. (1991). A prospective study of bone mineral content and fracture in communities with differential fluoride exposure. American Journal of Epidemiology 133: 649-660.

It should be noted that there are studies that found no relation between fluoridation and fractures.



9 Reproductive Effects:

-- Freni SC. (1994). Exposure to high fluoride concentrations in drinking water is associated with decreased birth rates. J Toxicology and Environmental Health 1994;42:109-121.

-- Susheela AK, Jethanandani P (1996). Circulating testosterone levels in skeletal fluorosis patients. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 34(2):183-9.

-- Kumar A, Susheela AK (1994). Ultrastructural studies of spermiogenesis in rabbit exposed to chronic fluoride toxicity. Int J Fertil Menopausal Stud 39(3):164-71.



10 Impact on Pineal Gland

-- Luke, J. (1997). The Effect of Fluoride on the Physiology of the Pineal Gland. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Surrey.

-- Luke, J. (2001). Fluoride deposition in the aged human pineal gland. Caries Res. 35:125-128.









11 Genetic Damage

-- Department of Health & Human Services (1991). Review of fluoride benefits and risks. App. H. H1-H6.

-- Mihashi M, & Tsutsui T. Clastogenic activity of sodium fluoride to rat vertebral body-derived cells in culture. Mutation Research May 368(1):7-13.

-- Aardema MJ, et al (1989). Sodium fluoride-induced chromosome aberrations in different stages of the cell cycle: a proposed mechanism. Mutation Research 223 191-203.

-- Caspary WJ, et al (1987). Mutagenic activity of fluorides in mouse lymphoma cells. Mutation Research. 187(3):165-80.

-- Tsutsui T, et al. (1984). Cytotoxicity, chromosome aberrations and unscheduled DNA synthesis in cultured human diploid fibroblasts induced by sodium fluoride. Mutation Research 139:193-198.



12 Thyroid Pathology

-- Bachinskii PP, et al. (1985). Action of the body fluorine of healthy persons and thyroidopathy patients on the function of hypophyseal-thyroid system. Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) 31(6):25-9.

-- Zhao, W. (1998). Long-term effects of various iodine and fluorine doses on the thyroid and fluorosis in mice. Endocr Regul 32(2):63-70.

-- Jooste PL, et al. (1999). Endemic goitre in the absence of iodine deficiency in schoolchildren of the Northern Cape Province of South Africa. Eur J Clin Nutr 53(1):8-12.

-- Lin Fa-Fu; et al (1991). The relationship of a low-iodine and high-fluoride environment to subclinical cretinism in Xinjiang. Iodine Deficiency Disorder Newsletter. Vol. 7. No. 3.

-- Galletti, P. & Joyet, G. (1958). Effect of fluorine on thyroidal iodine metabolism in hyperthyroidism. J. Clinical Endocrinology. 18:1102-1110



13 Dental Fluorosis

Heller KE et al (1997). Dental caries and dental fluorosis at varying water fluoride concentrations. J Pub Health Dent, 57;No. 3, 136-143.



14 -- Colquhoun, J. (1997). Why I changed my mind about water fluoridation. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 41 29-44 1997.

-- Limeback, H. (2000). Why I am now officially opposed to adding fluoride to drinking water. Open Letter. http://www.fluoridealert.org/limeback.htm

15 See: Connett, P. (2000). Fluoride: A Statement of Concern. Waste Not #414. http://www.fluoridealert.org/fluoride-statement.htm

16 FDA. (2000) Letter from Melinda K. Plaisier, Associate Commissioner for Legislation, to Ken Calvert, Chairman, Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment, Committee on Science, US House of Reps. Dec. 21. http://www.keepersofthewell.org/gov_resp_pdfs/fda_response.pdf

17 -- Stannard JG. (1991). Fluoride levels and fluoride contamination of fruit juices. Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 16 (1): 38-40. 1991

-- UNICEF. Fluoride in water: An overview. Accessed Online May 2001. http://www.unicef.org/programme/wes/info/fluor.htm

-- U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry (ATSDR), April, 1993: Toxicological Profile for Fluorides, Hydrogen Fluoride, and Fluorine. ATSDR/TP-91/17, 4/93, pp. 155-6.

18 -- Letter 9/5/2000 of Charles Fox, Asst. Administrator EPA, Office of Water, to Ken Calvert, Chairman, Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment, Committee on Science, US House of Representatives. http://www.keepersofthewell.org/gov_resp_pdfs/EPA_response2.pdf

-- U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry (ATSDR), April, 1993: Toxicological Profile for Fluorides, Hydrogen Fluoride, and Fluorine. ATSDR/TP-91/17, 4/93, pp. 155-6.

19 CDC (1999). Achievements in Public Health, 1900-1999: Fluoridation of Drinking Water to Prevent Dental Caries. Mortality and Morbidity Weekly Review (MMWR), 48(41);933-940 October 22, 1999.

20 CDC (2001). Recommendations for Using Fluoride to Prevent and Control Dental Caries in the United States. Mortality and Morbidity Weekly Review. August 17, 50(RR14):1-42.

21 Carton, RJ and Hirzy, JW (1998). Applying the NAEP Code of Ethics to the Environmental Protection Agency
and the fluoride in drinking water standard. Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the National Association of Environmental Professionals, 20-24 June 1998, San Diego, CA.

22 Hirzy, JW (2000). Statement before Environment and Public Works Subcommittee on Wildlife, Fisheries and Drinking Water. US Senate. June 29, 2000.